High-pressure 4He drift tubes for fissile material detection
A detector efficiency model based on energy extraction from neutrons is described and used to compare 4He detectors with liquid scintillators (EJ301/NE-213). Detector efficiency can be divided into three regimes: single neutron scattering, multiple neutron scattering, and a transition regime in-between. For an average fission neutron of 2 MeV, the amount of 4He needed would be about 1/4 of the amount of the mass of EJ301/NE-213 in the single-scattering regime. For about 50% neutron energy extraction (1 MeV out of 2 MeV), the two types of detectors (4He in the transition regime, EJ301 still in the single-scattering regime) have comparable mass, but 4He detectors can be much larger depending on the number density. A six-tube 11-bar-pressure 4He detector prototype is built and tested. Individual electrical pulses from the detector are recorded using a 12-bit digitizer. Differences in pulse rise time and amplitudes, due to different energy loss of neutrons and gamma rays, are used for neutron/gamma separation. Several energy spectra are also obtained and analyzed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L.; Gray, F. E.; Bacon, J. D.; Brockwell, M. I.; Chang, D. Y.; Chung, K.; Dai, W. G.; Greene, S. J.; Hogan, G. E.; Lisowski, P. W.; Makela, M. F.; Mariam, F. G.; McGaughey, P. L.; Mendenhall, M.; Milner, E. C.; Miyadera, H.; Murray, M. M.; Perry, J. O.; Roybal, J. D.; Saunders, A.; Spaulding, R. J.; and You, Z., "High-pressure 4He drift tubes for fissile material detection" (2013). Regis University Faculty Publications (comprehensive list). 744.