Title

A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: The adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

12-4-2015

Abstract

The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. ▸ Implications for Rehabilitation • Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. • The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. • An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. • This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals.

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