Bringing attention to residual risk: Psychology of Warnings, Administrative Controls and PPE

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



In the context of the Hierarchy of Risk Controls, Warnings, Administrative Controls and Personal Protective Equipment are sometimes referred to as Lower Order Controls. In practice, the effectiveness of Lower Order Controls can be overestimated due to a misunderstanding of the human factors that affect error likelihood in implementation of Lower Order Controls. This paper will explore one human factor limitation of Lower Order Controls in assessing residual risks in preventing injuries from electrical energy. We will specifically focus on the limitation of attention, which has implications for: • identifying hazards, • assessing risks, • taking appropriate actions based on warnings, • executing safe work practices, and • proper selection and use of personal protective equipment Raising awareness and improved understanding of these topics can enable more effective risk assessment, quantification of residual risks, and more effective selection and combination of risk controls to achieve risk as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).

This document is currently not available here.