Race and pain: A dual injustice

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The evidence presented in this chapter highlights the existence of a dual injustice-members of nondominant racial groups are more than likely to experience pain, while these same individuals are also more than likely to have their pain discounted by and undertreated by healthcare professionals. Evidence is presented from numerous national, racial, and ethnic contexts, and this chapter utilizes evidence that crosses historical, social, psychological, biological, and medical research. The antecedents, consequences, causes, and potential solutions to this dual injustice are examined and discussed with the recognition that the literal pain and suffering of people of color is at stake.

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