Bacterial vaginosis: A review

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Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common infection in women, occurs when the balance of normal vaginal flora is disrupted by the replacement of Lactobacillus species (spp.) in the vagina with high concentrations of anaerobic bacteria. Guidelines for treating sexually transmitted diseases, which were updated by the CDC in 2015, recommend oral metronidazole, intravaginal metronidazole gel, or intravaginal clindamycin cream for the treatment of BV. Alternative agents include oral tinidazole, oral clindamycin, and clindamycin ovules. Following publication of the CDC guidelines, secnidazole—a nitroimidazole agent with a long half-life—was approved for treatment of BV. Pharmacists are in a key position to actively work with healthcare providers to select the most appropriate treatment regimen, monitor for adverse effects, and provide counseling and recommendations for preventive measures in patients with BV.

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