Scale of Internalized Trans Oppression: Measure Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

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A growing amount of research uses the Minority Stress Model [Meyer, Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697 (2003). 10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674] to explore the effects of discrimination on the well-being of transgender people. Most of this research focuses on the effects of overt discrimination and the anticipation of discrimination, but few studies have explored the internal aspect of minority stress for transgender people. This may be because current measurement options are limited. To address this oversight, our study developed the Scale of Internalized Trans Oppression (SITO). The SITO moves beyond current measures of internalized prejudice to, instead, assess for the ubiquitous effects of internalized oppression. Results from our exploratory factor analysis provide preliminary evidence of a four-factor structure. Reliability analyses have established high internal consistency for both the Self-Doubt from Oppression subscale and Openness about Gender Identity subscale. Additionally, the Horizontal Hostility from Oppression subscale and the Fortitude subscale showed good internal consistency. Finally, research and clinical implications are discussed for this preliminary version of the SITO.

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