Videotape instruction versus illustrations for influencing quality of performance, motivation, and confidence to perform simple and complex exercises in healthy subjects

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This study compared videotape instruction (dynamic modeling) to instruction via still-photograph illustrations (static modeling) for influencing the quality of performance, motivation, and confidence of subjects performing common simple and complex exercises. Ten male and ten female subjects were randomly assigned to either a static or dynamic demonstration group. Subjects were scheduled for an acquisition session and retention test 24 hours apart. In acquisition, subjects viewed the static or dynamic model before performing four trials of each exercise. In the retention test, modeling was absent and subjects had to recall the exercises from memory in order to perform. Subjects were videotaped performing the exercises in acquisition and retention for subsequent rating of form by two raters independently. After the retention test, subjects viewed the alternative mode of modeling and were surveyed about the mode they found most motivating, and the mode engendering the most confidence about performing the exercises correctly. Analysis of form rating scores indicated the dynamic group to have significantly higher ratings of form in both acquisition and retention. The survey indicated that the dynamic group was more motivated to perform the exercises in a home environment, and more confident about performing the exercises correctly. Additionally, all subjects indicated a preference for using videotape over illustrations to learn the exercises. The findings suggested dynamic modeling via videotape was more effective than static illustrations for promoting correct form for the exercises. In addition, videotape modeling was indicated as more appropriate for encouraging confidence and motivation in an unsupervised exercise environment, such as a home exercise program.

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