Moral injury is a psychological construct developed in military context, and although it has been expanded to include specific occupational fields outside of the military, it has not yet been proposed as an outcome of workplace bullying. Employees may experience moral injury when their personal values and the legitimate values of the workplace clash with unacknowledged shadow values during incidents of workplace bullying. Workplace bullying could be considered a potentially morally injurious event (PMIE) because it is transgressive, it is asymmetric, and it involves high stakes: livelihood and identity are at risk. Regarding counseling considerations, the use of ritual has been recommended to facilitate the healing of moral injury in ancient sources, and there is indirect evidence that it could function usefully in the present, as well. Addressing moral injury in the workplace could provide many benefits, including of reduction of long-term unemployment.



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